Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell.
Knowledge and Skills Statement
A knowledge and skills statement is a broad statement of what students must know and be able to do. It generally begins with a learning strand and ends with the phrase “The student is expected to:” Knowledge and skills statements always include related student expectations.
Use a decoding inventory assessment. Ask students to read a list of words that focuses on specific inflectional endings. The list of words can include words with one or multiple inflectional endings. Ask students to read the base word and then add the ending to the base word with a flash card to see if they can read the new word correctly. Record the number of words they read correctly for each category and use the following scoring guide:
Intervention Needed—59% or less correct
- un: unwind, undo, unable, unhappy, unlucky, unusual, untie, uncertain, untrue, unwell, unfinished, unbroken, unafraid, unreal
- re: rewind, redo, reread, remix, remove, rerun, replay, retell, retake, repack rewire, reset, repeat, rename, respray, reappear
- dis: disable, disobey, disbelief, dislike, disappear, disagree, disloyal, discomfort, disservice, disrespect, disorder
- s: pets, stops, trips, runs, floats, yells, lands, walks, picks, cooks, jumps, plays, laughs, gets, dogs, shops, skips
- es: hikes, bakes, jokes, lakes, games, names, likes, piles, tales, holes, homes, crashes, dishes, buzzes, marches
- ed: shouted, played, jumped, laughed, used, talked, walked, washed, called, worked, enjoyed, wanted, liked
- ing: going, jumping, running, dancing, hopping, talking, singing, crying, leaving, carrying, skipping, floating, walking, stopping, laughing
- er: louder, softer, slower, bigger, smaller, quieter, taller, wider, runner, lighter, better, wiser, mover, baker, singer, helper, toddler, faster, deeper
- est: loudest, softest, slowest, biggest, smallest, quietest, tallest, widest, lightest, wisest, fastest, richest, deepest, poorest, smartest, youngest
Glossary Support for ELA.2.2.B.vi
Related 2009 Student Expectation
This student expectation is related to the following SE from the 2009 reading/language arts TEKS.
(2) Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonics. Students use the relationships between letters and sounds, spelling patterns, and morphological analysis to decode written English. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:
1. International Literacy Association. (2018). Explaining phonics instruction: An educator’s guide [Literacy leadership brief]. Newark, DE: Author. Retrieved from https://literacyworldwide.org/docs/default-source/where-we-stand/ila-explaining-phonics-instruction-an-educators-guide.pdf
Summary: In this guide from the International Literacy Association, answers to the questions following questions are explored: (1) What is phonics?; (2) When are students ready to learn phonics?; and (3) How is phonics taught?
2. What Works Clearinghouse. (n.d.). Foundational skills to support reading for understanding in kindergarten through 3rd grade: practice guide summary. Washington, DC: Institute of Education Science. Retrieved from https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/PracticeGuide/21
Summary: This practice guide provides four recommendations for teaching foundational reading skills to students in kindergarten through 3rd grade. Each recommendation includes implementation steps and solutions for common obstacles. The recommendations also summarize and rate supporting evidence. This guide is geared towards teachers, administrators, and other educators who want to improve their students’ foundational reading skills.