beginning reading writing teks talk image

Knowledge and Skills Statement

Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell.

Work with students on dictation. Dictation should be done with five to ten words at a time. Words should include review words, or previously studied words and spelling patterns, as well as high-frequency words.

An abbreviation is a shortened form of a word or phrase used in writing in place of the whole word or phrase (e.g., Mr. for Mister Dr. for doctor) Other second grade level examples include Mrs., months, days of the week, St., Ave.
A compound word is a word formed by two or more words that has a single meaning (e.g., afternoon, homework, grasshopper, fireman, flagpole, bathtub, birthday, spaceship, without, sandbox, inside, whenever, worksheet, railroad, bookcase, everything, lifejacket, barnyard, seashore, airport, something, someone, sometime, maybe, cannot).
A contraction is two words combined and shortened by omitting certain letters which are replaced with an apostrophe. In second grade, this could include not (couldn't, wouldn't, won't, shouldn't, aren't), am/are (I'm, we're, they're, you're), is/has (he's, she's, what's, it's, who's), have (could've, would've, should've, I've, we've), and will (he'll, we'll, I'll, they'll, you'll).
to write/form words from letters

Related 2009 Student Expectation

This student expectation is related to the following SE from the 2009 reading/language arts TEKS.

(23)  Oral and Written Conventions/Spelling. Students spell correctly. Students are expected to:
(E)  spell simple contractions (e.g., isn't, aren't, can't); and


Bear, D. R. & Templeton, S. (1998). Explorations in developmental spelling: Foundations for learning and teaching phonics, spelling, and vocabulary. The Reading Teacher, 52(3), 222–242. Retrieved from

Summary: Bear and Templeton address two broad questions in this article: What is our understanding of spelling development and how does this understanding fit within a broader model of literacy development? And what are the implications of the developmental model for spelling instruction and word study?