Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts.
Knowledge and Skills Statement
A knowledge and skills statement is a broad statement of what students must know and be able to do. It generally begins with a learning strand and ends with the phrase “The student is expected to:” Knowledge and skills statements always include related student expectations.
This can be assessed by using an observational checklist. This allows teachers to track student behaviors over time with multiple texts. The teacher can observe students during read-aloud, shared reading, or small-group reading instruction.
When observing student behaviors and recording responses on a checklist, a rubric that scores students' ability to generate questions makes tracking easier.
- The student is able to answer questions about a text, but he or she is unable to generate questions.
- The student is able to generate questions, but the questions are not always on topic.
- The student is able to generate simple questions that stay on topic.
- The student is able to generate questions that deepen understanding and stay on topic.
- It is important to assess all three parts of the SE (before, during, and after) and it is important to assess students’ ability to generate questions not just answer them.
- The difference between a 3 and a 4 is that a 3 would include asking questions that simply help the child better understand what is occurring in the story. A 4 would include asking questions that provoke deeper thinking about the text. See examples below:
Examples of a 3 (context: informational text about giraffes):
- What do giraffes eat?
- What is a baby giraffe called?
- Why do giraffes need such long necks?
- Are you saying that giraffes have long necks so they can get their food from the leaves on trees?
Examples of a 4:
- Do you think giraffes get tired of eating leaves?
- I wonder if giraffes like having such long necks?
- Where can I see a giraffe in real life?
Glossary Support for ELA.2.6.B
Related 2009 Student Expectation
This student expectation is related to the following SE from the 2009 reading/language arts TEKS.
(3) Reading/Beginning Reading/Strategies. Students comprehend a variety of texts drawing on useful strategies as needed. Students are expected to:
Figure 19: Reading/Comprehension Skills. Students use a flexible range of metacognitive reading skills in both assigned and independent reading to understand an author’s message. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts as they become self- directed, critical readers. The student is expected to:
What Works Clearinghouse. (2010). Improving reading comprehension in kindergarten through 3rd grade: practice guide summary. Washington, DC: Institute of Education Science. Retrieved from https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/PracticeGuide/14#tab-summary
Summary: The goal of this practice guide is to offer educators specific evidence-based recommendations that address the challenge of teaching reading comprehension to students in kindergarten through 3rd grade. The guide provides practical, clear information on critical topics related to teaching reading comprehension and is based on the best available evidence as judged by the authors.