beginning reading writing teks talk image

Knowledge and Skills Statement

Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell.

Show students words with specific spelling patterns to read. A checklist can be used to keep track of the types of words assessed. A scoring guide can also be used.

Mastery—80% + correct
Approaching—60%–79% correct
Intervention Needed—59% or less correct


  • VC—at, if, on, am, in, up, us, it
  • CVC—cup, dot, man, hum, bet, lid, fig, rod, sat
  • CCVC—that, shop, chip, this, shut, chat
  • CVCC—jazz, rich, cash, much, with, push, math, inch

The teacher can also assess with nonsense words to better identify what spelling patterns the student is struggling with. This is helpful for the students who have good sight-word knowledge because they cannot memorize nonsense words.



Decoding is the process of translating written speech into verbal speech sounds by applying knowledge of letter-sound correspondences. It is the ability to recognize letters, apply their associated sounds, and blend sounds to form words. Decoding applies to reading words, not comprehending word meaning.
Phonetic knowledge is the understanding of sound-symbol relationships and spelling patterns.
VC - in, it, on, up, is, if, us, am, at, as
CVC - sad, jam, pan, lap, rat, bed, ten, jet, kid, him, fin, dip, kit, dog, hot fog, hop, rot, cub, mug, tug, gum, run, sun, bug
CCVC - chat, chip, shop, shut, that, this, grab, slam, swim, frog, trap, ship, grin, snip, sled, skip, spin, trim, plan, plug
CVCC - much, wish, with, rush, path, moth, math, miss, buzz, lash, fish, dish


1. International Literacy Association. (2018). Explaining phonics instruction: An educator’s guide [Literacy leadership brief]. Newark, DE: Author. Retrieved from

Summary: This guide for educator's contains an explanation of phonics and different ways that it is taught.

2. What Works Clearinghouse. (n.d.). Foundational skills to support reading for understanding in kindergarten through 3rd grade: practice guide summary. Washington, DC: Institute of Education Science. Retrieved from

Summary: This practice guide provides four recommendations for teaching foundational reading skills to students in kindergarten through 3rd grade. Each recommendation includes implementation steps and solutions for common obstacles. The recommendations also summarize and rate supporting evidence. This guide is geared towards teachers, administrators, and other educators who want to improve their students’ foundational reading skills.

3. Baker, S. K., Santiago, R. T., Masser, J., Nelson, N. J., & Turtura, J. (2018). The Alphabetic Principle: From Phonological Awareness to Reading Words. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Office of Special Education Programs, National Center on Improving Literacy. Retrieved from

Summary: The alphabetic principle is a critical skill that involves connecting letters with their sounds to read and write. Learning and applying the alphabetic principle takes time and is difficult for most children. Explicit phonics instruction and extensive practice are important when teaching children to learn the alphabetic principle.