Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell.
Knowledge and Skills Statement
A knowledge and skills statement is a broad statement of what students must know and be able to do. It generally begins with a learning strand and ends with the phrase “The student is expected to:” Knowledge and skills statements always include related student expectations.
Ask students to sort long and short vowel sounds. A teacher may say a word (and hold up a picture card) and students must determine if it has a long or short vowel. Have a t-chart where students can put all the short-vowel pictures on one side and all the long vowel pictures on another.
- Short vowels (one syllable)—cat, tap, flat, bed, nest, bench, lunch, bush, moth, bath, pinch, stink, clock, stop, spin, grab, trip, flock, thin, shot, smell, fell, punch, crush, frog, dress, west, math, pick, truck
- Short vowels (two syllable)—basket, cactus, happen, disgust, until, picnic, tennis, kitten, napkin, single, tickle, rabbit, velvet, expect, collect, insect, random, cotton, insult, pretzel, distant, absent, admit, jungle
- Long vowels (one syllable)—cane, gain, train, stay, rake, feel, treat, beam, street, high, bike, tie, light, boat, go, toad, hole, phone, nose, bow, low, grow, cute, blue, chew, knew, use, tube, food, too
- Long vowels (two syllable)—railroad, airplane, table, between, snowflake, female, sideways, maybe
Students are not generating words; they are simply determining if the word has short or long vowels in it.
Glossary Support for ELA.2.2.A.ii
Baker, S. K., Beattie, T., Nelson, N. J., & Turtura, J. (2018). How We Learn to Read: The Critical Role of Phonological Awareness. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Office of Special Education Programs, National Center on Improving Literacy. Retrieved from https://improvingliteracy.org/brief/how-we-learn-read-critical-role-phonological-awareness
Summary: Phonological awareness involves being able to recognize and manipulate the sounds within words. This skill is a foundation for understanding the alphabetic principle and reading success. There are several ways to effectively teach phonological awareness to prepare early readers, including: 1) teaching students to recognize and manipulate the sounds of speech, 2) teaching students letter-sound relations, and 3) teaching students to manipulate letter-sounds in print using word-building activities.