Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell.
Knowledge and Skills Statement
A knowledge and skills statement is a broad statement of what students must know and be able to do. It generally begins with a learning strand and ends with the phrase “The student is expected to:” Knowledge and skills statements always include related student expectations.
There are multiple skills within the SE that can be assessed by using the following approaches.
- We are going to add to the first sound in this word. Say ____ with _____.
- Say /g/ with old = gold
- Say /sh/ with rink = shrink
- Say /ch/ with at = chat
- Say /p/ with lace = place
- Say /s/ with till = still
- We are going to add to the last sound in this word. Say ____ with ______.
- Add /t/ to pass = past
- Add /n/ to my = mine
- Add /m/ to say = same
- Add /t/ to way = weight
- Add /k/ to par = park
- Initial Sound Substitution:
- Say the word bad. In the word bad, change /b/ to /s/—(sad)
- Say the word star. In the word car, change /c/ to /st/—(star)
- Say the word west. In the word pest, change /p/ to /w/—(west)
- Final Sound Substitution:
- Say clown. Now change the /n/ to /d/—(cloud)
- Say flat. Now change the /t/ to /p/—(flap)
- Say sleep. Now change the /p/ to /k/—(sleek)
- Middle Sound Substitution:
- Say the word cot. In the word cot, change /o/ to /O/—(coat)
- Say the word pin. In the word pin, change /i/ to I/—(pine)
- Say the word tug. In the word tug, change /u/ to /a/—(tag)
We are going to remove the first sound in this word. Say ____ without the _____.
- Say spread without /sp/— (read)
- Say hand without /h/—(and)
- Say crate without /cr/—(ate)
- Say bring without /b/—(ring)
- Say part without /p/—(part)
We are going to remove the last sound in this word. Say ____ without the ______.
- Say rose without /z/—(row)
- Say inch without /ch/—(inch)
- Say train without /n/—(tray)
- Say bake without /k/—(bay)
- Say beat without /t/—(bee)
- When assessing these skills, it is helpful to provide a kinesthetic movement for each manipulation process to help students understand what you want them to do. For example, students can push their fists forward for adding, pull and hide their hands when removing, etc.
- The words do not always have to be real words. Students can do this activity with nonsense words, but real words make it easier when students are beginning to work on this skill.
Glossary Support for ELA.2.2.A.iv
Baker, S. K., Beattie, T., Nelson, N. J., & Turtura, J. (2018). How We Learn to Read: The Critical Role of Phonological Awareness. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Office of Special Education Programs, National Center on Improving Literacy. Retrieved from https://improvingliteracy.org/brief/how-we-learn-read-critical-role-phonological-awareness
Summary: Phonological awareness involves being able to recognize and manipulate the sounds within words. This skill is a foundation for understanding the alphabetic principle and reading success. There are several ways to effectively teach phonological awareness to prepare early readers, including: 1) teaching students to recognize and manipulate the sounds of speech, 2) teaching students letter-sound relations, and 3) teaching students to manipulate letter-sounds in print using word-building activities.