beginning reading writing teks talk image

Knowledge and Skills Statement

Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell.

Use a decoding inventory assessment. Ask students to read a list of words. The list may be of compound words, contractions, abbreviations, or a combination of the three. Record the number of words they read correctly for each category and use the following scoring guide:

Mastery—80%+ correct
Approaching—60%–79% correct
Intervention Needed—59% or less correct

Examples:

  • Compound words: afternoon, homework, grasshopper, fireman, flagpole, bathtub, birthday, spaceship, without, sandbox, inside, whenever, worksheet, railroad, bookcase, everything, lifejacket, barnyard, seashore, airport, something, someone, sometime, myself, maybe, cannot
  • Contractions: not (couldn't, wouldn't won't, shouldn't, aren't), am/are (I'm, we're, they're, you're), is/has (he's, she's, what's, it's, who's), have (could've, would've, should've, I've, we've), will (he'll, we'll, I'll, they'll, you'll)
  • Abbreviations: Mr., Mrs., Dr., months, days of the week, St., Ave.
An abbreviation is a shortened form of a word or phrase used in writing in place of the whole word or phrase (e.g., Mr. for Mister or Dr. for doctor) Other second grade level examples include Mrs., months, days of the week, St., Ave.
A compound word is a word formed by two or more words that has a single meaning (e.g., afternoon, homework, grasshopper, fireman, flagpole, bathtub, birthday, spaceship, without, sandbox, inside, whenever, worksheet, railroad, bookcase, everything, lifejacket, barnyard, seashore, airport, something, someone, sometime, maybe, and cannot).
A contraction is two words combined and shortened by omitting certain letters which are replaced with an apostrophe. In second grade, this could include not (couldn't, wouldn't, won't, shouldn't, aren't), am/are (I'm, we're, they're, you're), is/has (he's, she's, what's, it's, who's), have (could've, would've, should've, I've, we've), and will (he'll, we'll, I'll, they'll, you'll).
Decoding is the process of translating written speech into verbal speech sounds by applying knowledge of letter-sound correspondences. It is the ability to recognize letters, apply their associated sounds, and blend the sounds to form words. Decoding applies to reading words, not comprehending word meaning.
Phonetic knowledge is the understanding of sound-symbol relationships and spelling patterns.

Related 2009 Student Expectation

This student expectation is related to the following SE from the 2009 reading/language arts TEKS.

(2) Reading/Beginning Reading Skills/Phonics. Students use the relationships between letters and sounds, spelling patterns, and morphological analysis to decode written English. Students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth in increasingly more complex texts. Students are expected to:
(E) identify and read abbreviations (e.g., Mr., Ave.);
(F) identify and read contractions (e.g., haven't, it's);


                                            


Research

1. International Literacy Association. (2018). Explaining phonics instruction: An educator’s guide [Literacy leadership brief]. Newark, DE: Author. Retrieved from https://literacyworldwide.org/docs/default-source/where-we-stand/ila-explaining-phonics-instruction-an-educators-guide.pdf

Summary: In this guide from the International Literacy Association, answers to the questions following questions are explored: (1) What is phonics?; (2) When are students ready to learn phonics?; and (3) How is phonics taught? 

2. What Works Clearinghouse. (n.d.). Foundational skills to support reading for understanding in kindergarten through 3rd grade: practice guide summary. Washington, DC: Institute of Education Science. Retrieved from https://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/PracticeGuide/21

Summary: This practice guide provides four recommendations for teaching foundational reading skills to students in kindergarten through 3rd grade. Each recommendation includes implementation steps and solutions for common obstacles. The recommendations also summarize and rate supporting evidence. This guide is geared towards teachers, administrators, and other educators who want to improve their students’ foundational reading skills.