Knowledge and Skills Statement
A knowledge and skills statement is a broad statement of what students must know and be able to do. It generally begins with a learning strand and ends with the phrase “The student is expected to:” Knowledge and skills statements always include related student expectations.
Keep a running record to determine student mastery. Running records allow teachers to analyze reading fluency, expression, and comprehension in a comprehensive way. Once the running record is complete, the following rubrics can be used:
Fluency (phrasing & expression)
- The student reads primarily word by word. Occasional two-word or three-word phrases may occur, but these are infrequent and they do not preserve meaningful syntax.
- The student reads primarily in two-word phrases with some three- or four-word groupings. Some word-by-word reading may be present. Word groups may seem awkward and unrelated to the larger context of the sentence or passage.
- The student reads primarily in three- or four-word groups. Some smaller groupings may be present; however, most of the phrasing seems appropriate and preserves the syntax of the author. Little or no expressive interpretation present.
- The student reads primarily in large, meaningful phrase groups. Although some regressions, repetitions, and deviations from the text may be present, these do not appear to detract from the overall structure of the story. Preservation of the author's syntax is consistent. Some or most of the story is read with expressive interpretation.
Level of Text
- The student reads more than three months below grade level.
- The student reads one to three months below grade level and accurately.
- The student reads grade-level-appropriate text and demonstrates comprehension of the text while reading.
- The student reads above-grade-level appropriate text and demonstrates comprehension the text while reading.
Note—comprehension is not directly a part of fluency, but to be considered a fluent reader, students must also be able to comprehend what they read. A comprehension component may be included in the fluency assessment.
- The student is unable to answer comprehension questions without heavy teacher support.
- The student is able to answer 50–75% of the comprehension questions, with teacher prompting.
- The student is able to answer 50–75% of the comprehension questions, without teacher prompting.
- The student is able to answer 75%–100% of the comprehension questions without teacher prompting
Glossary Support for ELA.2.4
Related 2009 Student Expectation
This student expectation is related to the following SE from the 2009 reading/language arts TEKS.
(4) Reading/Fluency. Students read grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Students are expected to read aloud grade-level appropriate text with fluency (rate, accuracy, expression, appropriate phrasing) and comprehension.
Kuhn, M. R., Schwaneflugel, P. J., Meisinger, E. B., Levy, B. A., & Raskinski, T. V. (2010). Aligning Theory and Assessment of Reading Fluency: Automaticity, Prosody, and Definitions of Fluency. Reading Research Quarterly, 45(2), 230–251. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/20697184
Summary: Over the past decade, fluent reading has come to be seen as a central component of skilled reading and a driving force in the literacy curriculum. However, much of this focus has centered on a relatively narrow definition of reading fluency, one that emphasizes automatic word recognition. This article attempts to expand this understanding by synthesizing several key aspects of research on reading fluency, including theoretical perspectives surrounding automaticity and prosody. It examines four major definitions of reading fluency and their relationship to accuracy, automaticity, and prosody. A proposed definition is presented. Finally, the implications of these definitions for current assessment and instruction are considered along with suggestions for reenvisioning fluency's role within the literacy curriculum.