beginning reading writing teks talk image

Knowledge and Skills Statement

Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell.

Have students listen to and blend sounds together to make a word.


You are going to listen to sounds from words and blend the sounds together to make a word. Try this:

  • /m/-/a/-/p/—What word is this? (map)
  • /h/-/u/-/t/—What word is this? (hut)
  • /p/-/i/-/ck/—What word is this? (pick)
  • /s/-/i/-/ng/—What word is this? (sing)
  • /t/-/r/-/u/-/ck/ What word is this? (truck)
smallest meaningful unit of sound in speech
Phonological awareness is the ability to detect and manipulate the sound structures of spoken language, including recognizing differently sized sound parts (e.g., phrases, words, syllables, phonemes) and manipulating those parts (i.e., blend, segment, delete, add, and change).
a unit of oral language in which a vowel sound is heard; it may or may not contain a consonant sound


Baker, S. K., Beattie, T., Nelson, N. J., & Turtura, J. (2018). How We Learn to Read: The Critical Role of Phonological Awareness. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Office of Special Education Programs, National Center on Improving Literacy. Retrieved from

Summary: Phonological awareness involves being able to recognize and manipulate the sounds within words. This skill is a foundation for understanding the alphabetic principle and reading success. There are several ways to effectively teach phonological awareness to prepare early readers, including: 1) teaching students to recognize and manipulate the sounds of speech, 2) teaching students letter-sound relations, and 3) teaching students to manipulate letter-sounds in print using word-building activities.