beginning reading writing teks talk image

Knowledge and Skills Statement

Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell.

Have students isolate each sound they hear in the words given.


You are going to listen to words and tell me the sounds you hear. For example, the sounds I hear in the word dog are /d/-/o/-/g/. Can you tell me the sounds you hear in these words?

  • cap—/c/-/a/-/p/
  • big—/b/-/i/-/g/
  • slug—/s/-/l/-/u/-/g/
  • treat—/t/-/r/-/E/-/t/
  • chop—/ch/-/o/-/p/
  • park—/p/-/ar/-/k/
A phoneme is the smallest meaningful unit of sound in speech (e.g., the /s//ă//d/ of sad).
Phonological awareness is the ability to detect and manipulate the sound structures of spoken language, including recognizing differently sized sound parts (e.g., phrases, words, syllables, phonemes) and manipulating those parts (i.e., blend, segment, delete, add, and change).
the process of hearing a spoken word and being able to identify/divide its phonemes, or speech sounds, (e.g., dog is /d/ /o/ /g/ , house is /h/ /ou/ /se/ )


1. Baker, S. K., Beattie, T., Nelson, N. J., & Turtura, J. (2018). How We Learn to Read: The Critical Role of Phonological Awareness. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Office of Special Education Programs, National Center on Improving Literacy. Retrieved from

Summary: Phonological awareness involves being able to recognize and manipulate the sounds within words. This skill is a foundation for understanding the alphabetic principle and reading success. There are several ways to effectively teach phonological awareness to prepare early readers, including: 1) teaching students to recognize and manipulate the sounds of speech, 2) teaching students letter-sound relations, and 3) teaching students to manipulate letter-sounds in print using word-building activities.

2. McGree, L. M. & Ukrainetz, T. A. (2009). Using scaffolding to teach phonemic awareness in preschool and kindergarten. The Reading Teacher, 62(7), 599–603. Retrieved from

Summary: While much research and many curricula have surfaced for teaching phonemic awareness to young learners, we worked with preschool and kindergarten teachers who were frustrated with some children they found hard to teach. Many children easily grasped the instruction provided to them, but others were not catching on even when using suggestions provided in published curricula. We problem solved with teachers and taught them to make additional helpful comments during instruction that acted as scaffolds. Over time teachers learned how to use these scaffolds to differentiate instruction for individual learners. They learned when to use many comments (to provide higher levels of scaffolds) and when to use fewer comments (to provide lower levels of scaffolds). Teachers were able to ensure that nearly all preschoolers and kindergartners reached appropriate levels of phonemic awareness.