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Knowledge and Skills Statement

Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell.

One option for assessing this SE is through observation during small-group instruction or learning-centers time when students are engaged with a book. Anecdotal notes or a checklist can be used to keep track of what students know. A teacher can ask guiding questions if a certain behavior is not observed.

Example Questions:

  • If you were to read this book, how would you hold it?
  • Once you finish reading this page, what do you do next? (turning pages)
  • Where would you start reading on this page? Show me with your finger. (top to bottom / left to right)
  • Where would you read next? Show me with your finger. (return sweep)
Print awareness is the understanding of the characteristics and uses of print including the following print concepts: Printed text conveys meaning, sentences are comprised of words separated by spaces, and texts have unique print features that influence meaning.
Return sweep is the eye movement that brings the eye from the end of one line of text to the text at the beginning of the next line.


Zucker, T. A., Ward, A. E., & Justice, L. M. (2009). Print referencing during read-alouds: a technique for increasing emergent readers' print knowledge. The Reading Teacher, 63(1), 62–72. Retrieved from

Summary: Daily classroom read-alouds provide an important context for supporting children's emergent literacy skills. Utilizing print referencing during read-alouds can foster the development of print knowledge in children.