comprehension TEKS talk image

Knowledge and Skills Statement

Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts.

Use an observational checklist or take anecdotal notes during a read-aloud, shared reading, or small-group reading instruction. The student

  • focuses on the text to create mental images.
  • describes mental image that matches text.
  • asks clarifying questions to help create a mental image (unknown word, setting, etc.).
  • uses past experiences to help create a mental image.
  • describes mental images to a friend.
When students create mental images, they picture in their minds what they are reading in a text. Being able to produce accurate mental images is a strong indicator that students comprehend what they are reading. Students create mental images by using the details related to the senses (i.e., what something sounds, feels, tastes, looks, and/or smells like) to visualize what is being described.
visualizing physical details from a text such as actions, characters, scenes, events, and setting


1. Gregory, A. E., and Cahill, M. A. (2010). Kindergarteners can do it, too!: Comprehension strategies for early readers. The Reading Teacher, 63(6), 515–200. Retrieved from

Summary: This article provides examples from a kindergarten classroom on how to teach the following comprehension strategies: making connections, visualizations, questioning, and inferences.

2. What Works Clearinghouse. (2010). Improving reading comprehension in kindergarten through 3rd grade: practice guide summary. Washington, DC: Institute of Education Science. Retrieved from

Summary: The goal of this practice guide is to offer educators specific evidence-based recommendations that address the challenge of teaching reading comprehension to students in kindergarten through 3rd grade. The guide provides practical, clear information on critical topics related to teaching reading comprehension and is based on the best available evidence as judged by the authors.